Friday, April 29, 2016

VIOLA Penny

VIOLA Penny Seed Count: 34,000 – 47,000/oz., 1200 – 1670/gm. GERMINATION – Stage 0 Media pH: 5.5 – 5.8. Low pH levels will discourage Thielaviopsis outbreaks and boron deficiencies which may cause tip abortion and stunted growth. GERMINATION – Stage 1 Expect radicle emergence in 3 – 4 days. Visual Note: At the end of Stage 1, the radicle will have emerged and roots are beginning to form. Moisture: Moisture level 4 (wet): Media is wet to the touch, but not saturated. Cover seeds lightly with coarse vermiculite to maintain moisture levels. Note: Non-uniform germination may result if media conditions are too dry. Media Temperature: 68° – 70°F (20° – 21°C) Media EC: < 0.5 Lighting: Not necessary for germination. GERMINATION – Stage 2 The emphasis in Stage 2 is on allowing the media to dry slightly to encourage root penetration into the media. Visual Note: At the end of Stage 2, germination is completed. The roots are developing, a stem is present and the cotyledons have expanded. Moisture: Moisture level 3 (moist): Media is black but not glistening. Continuously saturated media limits oxygen availability and discourages good root penetration. Media Temperature: 68° F (20°C) days and 65°F (18°C) nights. Fertilizer: Feed established seedlings at 40 – 75 ppm nitrogen, with a fertilizer formulated for pansies, or with a calcium-based fertilizer (14-2-14). An ammonium concentration greater than 5 ppm will cause seedling stretch. Media EC: 0.5 – 0.75 Lighting: 1500 foot candles (15,000 lux) maximum. Violas should not be given night interruption as premature flowering may occur. GERMINATION – Stage 3 Visual Note: At the end of Stage 3, the roots should be penetrating the plug cell and the first true leaves have developed. Moisture: Moisture level 3 (moist): Media is black but not glistening. Continuously saturated media limits oxygen availability and discourages good root penetration. Media Temperature: 65° – 68°F (18° – 20°C) days, 65°F (18°C) nights to prevent seedling stretch. Fertilizer: Increase rate to 150 ppm nitrogen with a calcium-based fertilizer. Media EC: 0.75 – 1.0. Violas are sensitive to high salts, avoid EC levels exceeding 1.5. Lighting: 3500 foot candles (35,000 lux) total. GERMINATION – Stage 4 Visual Note: At the end of Stage 4, the roots should hold the plug mass together easily. The shoots should have 2 – 3 sets of true leaves. Moisture: Alternate Moisture level 4/2. Moisture level 4 (wet): Media is wet to the touch, but not saturated. Moisture level 2 (medium): Media has changed color from dark black to a medium brown. Do not allow seedlings to wilt. Continuously saturated media will promote seedling stretch. Media Temperature: Reduce night temperatures to 59°F (15°C) to initiate early flowering. Fertilizer: 150 ppm nitrogen with a calcium-based fertilizer. Media EC: 0.75 – 1.0 Growth Regulators: If necessary, may apply B-Nine (Daminozide) at 2500 ppm. GROWING ON Media: Select a porous media that drains well. This is important during cool growing seasons when temperatures are <62° F, light levels are low, and media is slow to dry. pH: 5.8 – 6.2. At pH levels > 6.5, Thielaviopsis may develop as black lesions on the roots. Symptoms also include yellowing of lower leaves and die back of the plant. Stressed plants under high temperatures are most likely to be affected. Moisture: Allow media to dry slightly between waterings. When growing under cool temperatures and low light conditions, reduce the frequency of watering. Saturated media for extended periods will induce stretching. When growing under warm temperatures and high light conditions, do not allow the plants to wilt. Fertilizer: Feed every 2 – 3 waterings at 100 – 150 ppm with a calcium-based fertilizer. If desired, an application of ammonium nitrate will help expand leaves. During cool weather production, ammonium-based feeds may encourage root rot problems. High nitrogen concentrations may promote stretching. Nutrition: Malformed, puckered and upward cupped leaves indicate calcium deficiencies. To prevent this, fertilize with calcium nitrate or add calcium sulfate to the growing media before transplant. Boron deficiencies can be distinguished by tip abortion, upper leaf stunting, puckering and thickening of leaves, along with shortened internodes and/or a gnarled mass of lateral shoots. Violas tend to be more sensitive to boron deficiencies than pansies. Boron deficiency is more prevalent during warm weather with frequent watering. pH levels below 6.0 will ensure boron is more readily available to the plant. A one-time application of Solubor will help overcome these problems. (Note: An overdose of Bonzi (Paclobutrazol) may also produce symptoms similar to boron or calcium deficiencies.) Media EC: Avoid EC above 1.5. Viola roots are sensitive to high salts. Temperature: 68°F (20°C) days or as cool as possible during warm weather conditions. During the cool season, a night temperature of 59°F (15°) will promote early flowering. Temperatures below 59°F (15°) will promote a hardier plant, but will increase crop time and delay flowering. Growth Regulators: Violas respond to DIF, B-Nine (Daminozide) and A-Rest (Ancymidol). Note: Malformed leaves and leathery growth may occur if B-Nine (Daminozide) is applied at 5000+ ppm when temperatures exceed 90°F (32°C). Common Pests: Aphids Common Diseases: Alternaria Leaf Spot, Downy Mildew, Thielaviopsis Root Rot, Cercospora Leaf Spot SCHEDULING Timing will vary for production depending on whether the crop is grown under warm or cool conditions. Crop time for Spring sales is longer due to cooler temperatures during the Winter months. Plug crop time: 6 – 7 weeks Pack crop time from transplant: 7 – 8 weeks 4 inch crop time from transplant: 9 – 10 weeks 6 inch crop time from transplant: 10 – 11 weeks GARDEN SPECIFICATIONS Light: Full sun Garden Height: 4 – 6 inches (10 – 15 cm) Width: 4 – 6 inches (10 – 15 cm) ASDA Hardiness Zone: 8 AHS Heat Zone: 9 – 1 www .goldsmithseeds.com
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